The anyboot image is usable both as a live CD and as an USB stick image. After a few years of running that succesfully, we have decided that maintaining the old CD-only images was not needed anymore.
Problems with the live CD should not be related to the partition layout of your hard drives (or even the presence of an hard drive - it's supposed to be a Live CD).
What I think happens is that something in your disk drive layout confused Haiku, to the point that it failed to find even its own data on the CD. But, it is hard to say without a syslog. You could capture one from the serial port, if the machine has one, or otherwise, use on-screen debug and take pictures.
This problem may not be related to the differences between anyboot and old-style bootable CDs. It could be one of many other changes in the last few years of development, and I think a likely cause is changes in the SATA driver which could simply make it not play well with your CD drive or SATA controller.
The raw images are not meant to be used directly, but as yet another option to install haiku. You can write the image to an USB stick partition, run makebootable on it, and then use that to install the system on a more permanent place. We keep them small so it is faster to copy them to a disk, no need for copying a whole GB of data.
As for BFS resizing, there was a GSoC project about it a few years ago but I don't know what happened to that code.