rm -rf / et all are just an interface to the os, how they are interpreted depends on the OS, just because there is no direct way to delete all lettered disk on windows on the cli does not mean there is none at all.
In some cases we can do some stuff to help prevent accidentally triggering such stuff, good example would be FreeBSD extended flags that make system files undeleteable (like we could do this to our haiku.hpkg files), ubuntu’s --no-preserve-root is also an example one could do.
FreeBSD Securelevel preventing modification to mounted devices is also a good example of how to prevent silly mistakes like people using dd if=file of=/dev/wrongvdev to wipe their root disk
Although i think the heavy disinsentivising of the cli on haiku already acomplishes this somewhat (not many people know of evil stuff you can do with windows powershell either, even if it is powerfull ;)
(funnily enough rm -rf /* on standard unix will not remove all files… only rm -rf / will do that, because posix sais that * shall not match .*, so the correct command would be rm -rf /* /.* / :D)
edit: as far as i know, making a dir unreadable will prevent any tool from decending that way, and also rm i think stops on file system boundaries per default